First aid instructions

Mauri Ratilainen
Image: Mauri Ratilainen
The brain requires plenty of oxygen, which is supplied to it by the blood in the arteries. If the amount of blood in the brain is reduced, the person faints, or loses consciousness for a moment.
 
Causes:
Not drinking enough, excessive sweating.
Standing for a long time.
Mental agitation or intense emotional reaction.
 
Symptoms:
A strong blow to the head may cause bruising in the brain tissue. Bleeding within the skull is often related.
 
Causes:
A blow to the head.
Hurting the head while falling.
 
Symptoms:
 
Mild head injury:
Momentary loss of consciousness.
Short-term memory loss, particularly related to the time of the event.
A burn is tissue damage caused by heat or a corrosive chemical substance, in which damage is caused to the skin and possibly the tissues beneath it. If the skin is not cooled, the injury will spread to the deeper layers. Burns damage the skin tissue.
 
Causes:
Hot object, liquid, or steam.
Corrosive substance, radiation.
Electricity.
 
Symptoms:
Superficial burn injury
A sprained joint causes bleeding in the subcutaneous tissue. In addition to pain, the injured area gathers fluids and swells.
 
Joint injury occurs when the ligaments surrounding the joint stretch or tear. Even other soft tissues may be injured. The injury is not always visible. Sometimes, a joint may be dislocated and remain in a clearly visible malposition.
 
Causes:
Falling, slipping.
Hitting something.
Nosebleeds are usually harmless and can be treated at home. Sometimes, however, bleeding may be so profuse that medical care is required.
 
Causes:
Blowing one’s nose excessively, dry mucous membranes in the nose.
A blow to the nose.
 
Symptoms:
Bleeding from one or both nostrils.
Nausea.
 
First aid:
In connection with chest pain, the creation of further damage can be prevented and the possibilities of the person to recover improved significanlty through starting the first aid and care quickly.
Chest pain must always be taken seriously.
 
Causes:
Coronary thrombosis, often called a heart attack.
An angina pectoris attack.
 
Symptoms:
 
Shock refers to a situation where the bloodstream in the tissues is insufficient for securing the flow of oxygen to the cells.
 
Causes:
Excessive internal or external bleeding.
Dehydration caused by burn injuries or severe diarrhoea.
Failure of the pumping of the heart.
Intense allergic reaction.
 
Symptoms:
Removing a foreign object from the airways requires swift first aid skills.
 
Recognise an emergency quickly. If several helpers are available, one of them calls 112 immediately, while the other one begins first aid.
 
The most typical accident risks of children are significantly affected by the age of the child. Accidents affecting children under three years old most often occur at home or at playgrounds (burns, falling from the changing table, lap, a swing, or a climbing frame, for example).
 
Such accidents can be largely prevented with monitoring and ensuring the safety of the home (protecting sockets and stoves, storage of hazardous substances, particularly medication, etc.).
 
When the blood sugar level of a person suffering from diabetes decreases too much, the situation may be life-threatening.
 
Diabetes is caused by the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or its effects in the system are insufficient. This increases the blood sugar level. Blood sugar is affected by diet and exercise. A high blood sugar level can be reduced with medication.
 
From the perspective of first aid, the most common situation is an insufficient level of blood sugar after taking medication, when
A severe allergic reaction can be caused by any factor which causes allergy.
 
Anaphylaxis refers to a deadly allergy reaction in the entire body. The symptoms often start as milder general symptoms, but they can become life-threatening in a matter of minutes.
 
Causes:
Being stung by a wasp.
A medical substance.
A food product or a scent.
 
Symptoms:
Secure their breathing by placing them into the recovery position.
 
Acting in case of a traffic accident
The better prepared you are for an accident, the easier it will be to act calmly and remain able to act. 
The severity and speed of appearance of poisoning symptoms depends on the substance and amount, as well as the method in which it entered the body.
 
The symptoms caused by a poisonous substance depend on its features, the amount on the body, and the method of exposure. Substances can enter the body through the mouth, airways, skin, or eyes, or be injected.
 
Causes:
Medical substances, mushrooms, berries.
Carbon monoxide, gases.
Symptoms of fracture include pain, swelling, abnormal mobility, soreness, and malposition. 
 
Fractures may be compound fractures or simple fractures. In compound fractures, the skin is broken and the end of the bone sticks out, and immediate medical attention is necessary. Simple fractures may cause internal bleeding.
 
Causes:
Falling, falling from a high place, or hitting something.
If a clot or bleeding forms in the vascular system in the brain, it causes a transient ischaemic attack, which may lead to a cerebral infarction. The condition may lead to a life-threatening state in a moment. 
The different parts of the brain guide the different actions of a human, so the symptoms and effects vary depending on which part of the brain the damage is in and how extensive it is.
 
Causes:
Damage to brain tissue.
Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membranes in the bronchi, often based on allergy. 
An asthma attack is caused by a state of contraction in the bronchi, causing the air flow to the lungs to shrink, making breathing difficult. People suffering from asthma are usually familiar with their illness and often carry the required medication with them in case of an attack.
 
Causes:
Pollen and animal dander.
Respiratory infections.

Basic instructions on how to stop bleeding.

Instructions on how to help an unconscious person.

The success of resuscitation depends primarily on the time between the heart stopping to starting the resuscitation.
 
The helper on the scene should be able to resuscitate and dare to help. If resuscitation is started quickly, the possibilities of survival are doubled or even tripled.
 
Knowing how to stop bleeding and dress a wound are basic first aid skills.
 
A wound is a damage in the skin or mucous membrane, which may be associated with profuse bleeding. The healing of the wound is affected by its size and location, cleanliness, and the injury mechanism (wound type). Tattered or dirty wounds or wounds on mobile areas heal slower.
 
Causes:
Scratch, or flesh wound: graze, falling.
Having an ICE contact on your phone may help in reaching your next of kin.
 
Phone numbers stored on your phone in case of emergencies are useful, particularly when travelling abroad. Using the ICE (In Case of Emergency) abbreviation means adding the abbreviation before the name of your next of kin on your phone.
 
Dysfunctions in the brain may cause unintentional muscle spasms and seizures. A person may be seizing for several reasons. 
 
Causes:
Poisoning.
Epilepsy.
Cerebral haemorrhage.
Low blood sugar in diabetics.
High fever.
Head injury.
Always call the emergency number 112 whenever someone’s life, health, property, or the environment are in danger or threatened or you suspect this to be the case.
 
Follow these instructions when making the emergency call:
Call yourself, if possible.
Tell the operator clearly what has happened.
Give the exact address and town.
Answer the questions asked.
People are often shocked at the scene of an accident. Accidents and falling severely ill can often cause people to be mentally hurt, in addition to physical injuries.
 
The objective of psychological first aid is to calm down, comfort, and process what happened. This way, the victim and their family members are helped to cope and move on after the event. Calm and determined actions by the helper will provide a feeling of safety.
 
Source: Ensiapu–kirja (2012)
 
As a helper:
Prevent suffocation by clearing the airways.
If the victim cannot be woken up, clear the airways and examine whether their breathing is normal.
 
If you can move the victim to lie down on the ground:
Move the victim to lie on their back.
Tilt their head by lifting on the tip of the chin with one hand and pushing their forehead with the other.
Are they breathing normally?

The key to a successful resuscitation is that CPR should start as soon as possible.